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Q11. How are the judgments on the similarity of goods/services made?

Q11. How are the judgments on the similarity of goods/services made?

A11. Although Japan has adopted the Nice International Classification, goods or services are categorized into some groups unique to Japan and independent of the International Classification. Each group has a certain code. Specifically, goods or services bearing the same code, that is, goods or services categorized into the same group, are presumed to be similar. If the goods or services for an application have the same codes as the cited prior trademark, the goods or services are deemed to be similar to one another and it is generally difficult to argue that they are dissimilar.